Internal combustion engine. Motor vehicle parts

A big technical encyclopedia “Internal combustion engine”: gasoline engine, diesel engine, cylinder head, combustion chamber, dohc, spark plug, fuel pump, injection system, exhaust system.

An internal combustion engine is a type of heat engine in which the fuel mixture is burned inside the engine in a combustion chamber. Such an engine converts the energy of fuel combustion into mechanical work.

In spark ignition engines, such as petrol (gasoline) engines, the combustion chamber is usually located in the cylinder head. The engines are often designed such that the bottom of combustion chamber is roughly in line with the top of the engine block.

A crankshaft is a shaft driven by a crank mechanism, consisting of a series of cranks and crankpins to which the connecting rods of an engine are attached. It is a mechanical part able to perform a conversion between reciprocating motion and rotational motion.

The piston is the main component of pumps, compressors and reciprocating internal combustion engines, used to convert the energy of compressed gas into the energy of translational motion. The connecting rods and the crankshaft are used to further convert energy into torque. An opposed-piston engine is a piston engine in which each cylinder has a piston at both ends, and no cylinder head.

In internal combustion engines, the cylinder head is mounted on the cylinder block, locking the cylinders and forming closed combustion chambers. The joint between the head and the block is sealed with a block head gasket. Valves with springs, spark plugs, injectors are usually mounted in the head. Depending on the type of engine (stroke, ignition system, type of cooling, gas distribution system), the head arrangement can differ to a very large extent.

The carburetor is designed to prepare a combustible mixture by mixing liquid fuel with air and regulating the amount of its supply to the engine cylinders. The fuel injection system, in contrast to the carburetor system, supplies fuel by means of forced injection using nozzles into the intake manifold or into the cylinder.

A valvetrain or valve train is a mechanical system that controls the operation of the intake and exhaust valves in an internal combustion engine. The intake valves control the flow of air / fuel mixture (or air alone for direct-injected engines) into the combustion chamber, while the exhaust valves control the flow of spent exhaust gasses out of the combusion chamber.

An ignition system generates a spark or heats an electrode to a high temperature to ignite a fuel-air mixture in spark ignition internal combustion engines. The widest application for spark ignition internal combustion engines is in petrol (gasoline) road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles.

The fuel pump is an integral part of any fuel injection system that supplies fuel directly to the cylinder of a piston engine. The fuel pump is designed to create pressure in the fuel line, which must be much higher than the pressure in the engine cylinder.

The vehicle’s exhaust system is designed to minimize the build-up of harmful gases inside the engine. The exhaust manifold is directly adjacent to the engine, receiving exhaust fumes from an explosion in the combustion chamber. The exhaust manifold is connected to a catalyst in which harmful substances are decomposed into less toxic substances and water.

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“Internal combustion engine. Motor vehicle parts” is a complete free offline handbook of terminology, covers the most important terms and concepts.COLLAPSE


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